In Congress, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed.

That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is in the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security.

Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the Present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let the Facts be submitted to a candid World.

In every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

Nor have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of the divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock

  1. Josiah Bartlett
  2. Wm. Whipple
  3. Saml. Adams
  4. John Adams
  5. Robt. Treat Paine
  6. Elbridge Gerry
  7. Step. Hopkins
  8. William Ellery
  9. Roger Sherman
  10. Sam'el Huntington
  11. Wm. Williams
  12. Oliver Wolcott
  13. Matthew Thornton
  1. Wm. Floyd
  2. Phil. Livingston
  3. Frans. Lewis
  4. Lewis Morris
  5. Richd. Stockton
  6. Jno. Witherspoon
  7. Fras. Hopkinson
  8. John Hart
  9. Abra Clark
  1. Robt Morris
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. Benja. Franklin
  4. John Morton
  5. Geo. Clymer
  6. Jas. Smith
  7. Geo. Taylor
  8. James Wilson
  9. Geo. Ross
  10. Caesar Rodney
  11. Geo Read
  12. Tho M'Kean
  1. Samuel Chase
  2. Wm. Paca
  3. Thos. Stone
  4. Charles Carroll of Carrollton
  5. George Wythe
  6. Richard Henry Lee
  7. Th. Jefferson
  8. Benja. Harrison
  9. Thos. Nelson Jr.
  10. Francis Lightfoot Lee
  11. Carter Braxton
  1. Wm. Hooper
  2. Joseph Hewes
  3. John Penn
  4. Edward Rutledge
  5. Thos. Heyward Junr.
  6. Thomas Lynch Junr.
  7. Arthur Middleton
  1. Button Gwinnett
  2. Lyman Hall
  3. Geo. Walton